According to the EFSA reports:
EFSA’s opinion on the role of folic acid during this period::
- Folic acid contributes to reducing the risk of neural tube disorders and the growth of maternal tissues during pregnancy.
EFSA's opinion on the role of iron in the composition of blood and zinc in fertility:
Iron contributes to the normal formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin
Zinc contributes to normal fertility and reproduction
During the fertile stage women need some nutrients in greater quantity, this is the case of iron, due to the losses due to menstruation, among other causes, and folic acid, recommended for women who are likely to become pregnant.
For other nutrients, such as calcium or vitamin D, intake needs increase with age, starting from menopause.
During the periconceptional period some nutrients such as folic acid have a very high requirement. It is recommended that women who are likely to become pregnant consume 400μg of folic acid from food supplements or fortified foods, in addition to the intake of folic acid from a varied and balanced diet..
In the lactation period, the energy needs are greater for the generation of milk, and also the needs of some vitamins and minerals, as well as DHA, essential for the development of the fetus and the newborn, in particular of their view.
During pregnancy and lactation a daily intake of DHA of 200 mg is recommended in addition to the 250 mg of DHA + EPA recommended for the general population.
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